Trip Report: Fábrica Coffee Roasters (Lisbon, Portugal)

Posted by on 09 Oct 2016 | Filed under: Barista, Café Society, Consumer Trends, Foreign Brew, Roasting

Stanislav Benderschi — half-Russian, half-Portuguese — opened this coffee destination in June 2015. While far from the first local roaster/café combination within Lisbon’s city limits, it is certainly one of the most modern at doing it.

Off the Avenida da Liberdade, not far from the Restauradores Metro station, the neighborhood is like much of Lisbon these days: in transition between newer businesses, an infiltration of heavy construction equipment, and demolition of the remaining urban decay that’s still very much about. (For example, its neighbor to the south is quite literally a complete teardown.)

Alleyway that's home to Fábrica Coffee Roasters Storefront entrance to Fábrica Coffee Roasters in Lisbon

Tear-down next door to Fábrica Coffee Roasters Inside Fábrica Coffee Roasters

In front there are several streetside tables under awnings, advertising their “Best beans. Great coffee.” slogan in unabashed English. There’s a lot of English language suffused about here — such as the sign that instructs its patrons with, “No WiFi. Drink coffee.” And yet despite the International nod that this brings, Fábrica does not completely betray its Lisbon roots; it manages to successfully straddle both the local and the global.

Inside is a bit more of the typical, aging coffeehouse you might find in San Francisco in the 1990s: a mix of rough wooden furniture and chairs, brick walls, scuffed wooden floors, and a chalkboard coffee menu. In back is their Probat roaster, purchased in Germany, where they roast about weekly and accumulate a bit of their roasted coffee and merchandising for sale (T-shirts, coffee accessories, etc.).

Chalkboard coffee menu inside Fábrica Coffee Roasters Fábrica Coffee Roasters' Probat in back

Looking towards the entrance to Fábrica Coffee Roasters Fábrica Coffee Roasters merchandising and roasted coffee in back

The baristas are a friendly, international bunch — from the service-oriented Lisboeta, Claudio, to Alexander from Kiev who speaks absolutely no Portuguese. This local/global mix is also reflected in their clientele, which seems equal parts Portuguese locals and foreign expats or tourists. Mr. Benderschi has decidedly tried to establish a comfortable, albeit international, environment for Lisboetas — raising their coffee standards while banking that more will additionally seek out their roasts for home use.

There’s little to the menu here besides coffee, but who’s complaining? Using a three-group La Marzocco GB5, they pull single (€1,20) or café duplo (€1,70) shots with a thicker, medium-and-lighter-brown striped crema. The duplo is three sips short in a larger logo IPA ceramic cup. It has a full body with a solid mouthfeel and a dynamic flavor range of apple brightness, molasses, and some cloves. It’s truly gorgeous and rather exemplary.

Whereas Copenhagen Coffee Lab feels like an interloper, Fábrica manages to feel steeped enough in the local coffee culture while advancing quality standards and looking outward.

Read the review of Fábrica Coffee Roasters in Lisbon, Portugal.

Fábrica Coffee Roasters' service counter with La Marzocco machine The Fábrica Coffee Roasters' espresso

Claudio of Fábrica Coffee Roasters in the house Alexander of Fábrica Coffee Roasters, from Kiev and he doesn't speak Portuguese

Trip Report: Copenhagen Coffee Lab (Lisbon, Portugal)

Posted by on 06 Oct 2016 | Filed under: Café Society, Consumer Trends, Foreign Brew, Roasting

Danish owners, Ida de Matos and twins Helle and Susan Jacobsen, created an outpost of their Copenhagen coffee laboratory mothership here in the Príncipe Real district of Lisbon. It’s a Scandinavian curiosity dropped in the middle of Portuguese coffee culture, creating something of an alternate of good quality for exploratory locals.

It’s a quiet space despite the soundtrack. Everything inside here is white: service counter, tile floors, metal stools, café tables, employees, and most patrons. The expat factor is unavoidable, with English-speaking foreign students and — sadly yes on my visit — the obligatory man bun. Inside it’s a youthful vibe, heavy on laptop zombies.

Approaching Copenhagen Coffee Lab in Lisbon Service counter inside Copenhagen Coffee Lab, Lisbon

Coffee menu inside Copenhagen Coffee Lab, Lisbon Patrons reclining in a window cove of Copenhagen Coffee Lab, Lisbon

There are a few indoor tables and odd seating options, including an isolated room in back. Shelves of coffee merchandising sit at the front and rear of the shop. They offer pastries and salads, a breakfast menu, light lunches, and even Knækbrød (Scandinavian crispbreads).

They have a particularly lengthy coffee and espresso menu, leveraging the coffee they roast at their Copenhagen headquarters and offering it also as V60, Aeropress, or Chemex. The options of the day were primarily Brazil or Kenya single origins. The barista, who will step out for a smoke given even Portugal’s non-smoking laws of the past decade, uses scales for precision weighting.

Copenhagen Coffee Lab's coffee menu in Lisbon Seating at the back room at Copenhagen Coffee Lab, Lisbon

Inside seating space, Copenhagen Coffee Lab, Lisbon Chemex brewers and coffee for use at Copenhagen Coffee Lab, Lisbon

Espresso can come as a single shot (€1,30) or a café duplo (doppio, at €2). Using a two-group Astoria machine, their default Brazil double espresso came with a medium brown, even crema. The shot was medium-to-thin-bodied with some acidic brightness on the finish: less cherry and more raspberry. It’s a rather classic light roast, with the dynamic range of the flavor profile cut short and weighted more towards brightness with some limited mid-palate.

Served in Acme & Co ceramic gray cups. A good, alternative espresso in the thick of Lisbon, However, as a visiting tourist, the experience might be a little too familiar. But then when I travel, I generally prefer things that express more of the local coffee culture — and less of what seem like cultural imports that you can practically find carbon copies of in various other cities around the world.

Read the review of Copenhagen Coffee Lab in Lisbon, Portugal.

Copenhagen Coffee Lab's Astoria machine, Lisbon The Copenhagen Coffee Lab espresso

Trip Report: Wildcraft Espresso Bar (Castro)

Posted by on 05 Sep 2016 | Filed under: Barista, Café Society, Local Brew

Former lawyer (and Xoogler), Theresa Beaumont, returned to her former neighborhood and opened this small space in Dec 2015 at the base of the Bank of the West building — following a concession the bank made to the neighborhood to retain its lower level retail space. A lesbian of color setting up shop in a predominantly gay white male neighborhood? You know it. She aims to make your brief time here in the small space “the best 10 minutes” of your day, and would you believe they do a rather good job of that?

There are a couple of small sidewalk tables out front. Inside, there’s tall glass for making the small space seem as bright and open as reasonably possible. There’s one indoor metal café table with two chairs at the front window; any more and it would feel cramped.

Entrance to Wildcraft Espresso Bar in the Castro Inside Wildcraft Espresso Bar: menu and retail coffee for sale

White walls, a concrete backsplash, some roasted coffee on display for retail sale (Ritual Roasters and Calgary, Canada’s Phil Sebastian Roasters). With the small service space behind the counters, the menu is similarly focused: espresso, drip coffee, and pastries with the curious addition of bone broth and sheep’s milk.

The baristi here are friendly and engaging. And impressively so. I’ve formally reviewed a few thousand coffee shops around the world for over the past 13 years, and Jordan here was arguably the coolest barista I may have ever met.

Lone table seating inside Wildcraft Espresso Bar and the sidewalk seating beyondThey pulled shots of Ritual’s Last Exit seasonal espresso blend from a shiny three-group La Marzocco GB/5. It’s daringly one-sip short, but it’s a well-crafted shot at that: pungent, dynamic, and lively with a flavor of orange zest and a strong brightness without being overly fruity.

Ritual’s coffee didn’t afford much of a healthy crema on extraction — it was thinner and a pale yellow — but that didn’t detract much from the overall quality of the end product. Served on a decorative dish, in an organically spun ceramic demitasse, with a side of sparkling water and a twist of sugared orange peel.

Read the review of Wildcraft Espresso Bar in the Castro.

Jordan preps for the Wildcraft La Marzocco GB/5 The decorative Wildcraft Espresso Bar espresso

Trip Report: Equator Coffee & Teas (Tenderloin / Mid-Market)

Posted by on 01 Sep 2016 | Filed under: Café Society, Local Brew

Opening in April last year, this Mid-Market outlet of the slowly growing Equator chain espouses being a decidedly populist place for coffee. Like we never heard that before. But given its location and the surrounding environs, you can’t get too precious about your coffee when you do your business among more than a few addicts, panhandlers, and the chemically enhanced. “Mid-Market” being realtorspeak these days for parts of the Tenderloin.

Surrounded by the venerable Warfield Theater and near the landmark Crazy Horse flesh-o-teria, this gentrified space is bright and decorated with inclining angles and lots of exposed concrete — warmed up with leafy green stencils/murals. They display their roasted coffees and teas for retail sale on the rear, service wall.

Sidewalk seating in front of Equator Coffee & Teas, Mid-Market Service counter inside Equator Coffee & Teas, Mid-Market

Window counter seating inside Equator Coffee & Teas, Mid-MarketInside there’s a sort of cherry wood counter with four metal stools at the service bar plus two more similar benches at either side of the entrance for window counter seating. Just beyond that, there’s sidewalk seating beneath two parasols and benches sectioned off from the sometimes-sketchy but always entertaining sidewalk traffic. They offer beer and wine on tap, sandwiches and “boards” to eat, and of course coffee: as espresso and pour-overs.

Pulling shots from a white, two-group La Marzocco FB/70, their espresso comes with an even, medium-to-dark-brown crema. It’s a relatively deep, darker espresso of fuller volume for a doppio shot: four sips large at that. The flavor has some pepper, spices, a hint of molasses, but it is a bit limiting on brightness despite some slight cherry fruit. Served in white English ceramic cups with a decorative spoon and short glass of still water on the side.

Neighboring Warfiend and Crazy Horse Murals around the corner, behind the Warfield

It’s a good shot, but I expect more. Especially when comparing it with their Mill Valley surf shop location. A place with Equator’s award-winning coffee stature really ought to do better. It barely gives a Peet’s a run for the money.

Read the review of Equator Coffee & Teas in SF’s Tenderloin / Mid-Market area.

Equator Coffee & Teas' La Marzocco FB/70 The Equator Coffee & Teas espresso, Mid-Market

Trip Report: George and Lennie (Tenderloin)

Posted by on 07 Aug 2016 | Filed under: Café Society, Local Brew

Opening in August 2015 in one of the rougher parts of this softening town, Brett Walker combined his experience as a former Four Barrel Coffee barista with his love of houseplants and large-format prints of his photography in establishing what is very much a personal space. It also happens to serve coffee.

On the ground floor beneath new residential apartments (The Lofts at Seven) and nearby UC Hastings and its law students, this café’s name is an homage to his favorite book (John Steinbeck). There’s often a selection of eclectic music playing on the turntable, blaring through cheap speakers.

Tenderloin murals as you approach George and Lennie Mo' mural...

Entrance to George and Lennie in the Tenderloin Service counter inside George and Lennie, with of course Brett at the helm

Besides Brett’s massive plot printer off to the side, the space includes two live-edge cut counters at the front windows with two wooden stools (courtesy of his wife, furniture designer Katie Gong). There’s also a short, two-person wood bench out front for sidewalk seating.

Inside the chairs are mismatched and, along with the occasional cactus, cover the concrete slab floors. He sells Chemex brewers, filters, and roasted coffee plus baked goods, pour-over coffee, and espresso from a three-group La Marzocco Linea Classic. There’s even a chalk menu of drinks and prices that states “Butter Coffee – Yes”.

Brett Walker's plot printer for his photographs takes up one side of the space - with houseplants Front window counter at George and Lennie

Tenderloin mural around UC Hastings, near George and LennieHe pulls shots of Four Barrel’s Friendo Blendo (he also serves De La Paz) with a moderately thick, even, medium-to-pale brown crema. Served out of a short glass jelly jar, it has a distinctive brightness that you can sense at the back of your throat and tastes of spices, some apple, and a little molasses. But this is mostly about the brightness.

Some SF smartphone zombies with a jones for the gram might whine about the lack of WiFi here, but that would detract from Brett’s one-man-show of a coffee space. This place reminds me of some of the edgier SF coffee bars of the 1990s — just with much better coffee.

Read the review of George and Lennie in SF’s Tenderloin.

Brett works his La Mazocco Linea Classic The George and Lennie espresso - served in a jelly jar

Trip Report: Sightglass (SFMOMA)

Posted by on 16 Jul 2016 | Filed under: Café Society, Local Brew, Machine

This Sightglass location was announced in 2015, in the middle of SFMOMA’s three-year hiatus while being expanded into the largest modern art museum in America.

It opened with the museum in May 2016, inhabiting a modern, open air space among photography and interactive exhibits on the third floor. The space employs blonde wood and a sleek, minimalist design and is surrounded by modern sofas, small café tables, and video art installations.

Approaching the service counter at SFMOMA's Sightglass Service bay, roasted Sightglass coffee, and a Kees van der Westen Spirit machine

Stairwell to SFMOMA's 6th floorThis is the new coffee stop in the expanded museum. Cafe 5 on the fifth floor is where the former Blue Bottle Coffee at the Rooftop Garden used to be (with its three-group, manual Kees van der Westen Mirage Idrocompresso Triplette espresso machine relocating to the Outer Sunset‘s Andytown Coffee Roasters during the hiatus). Cafe 5 now serves illy coffee, and they’ve added two more floors to what was once the museum rooftop.

This was the third incarnation of SFMOMA I’ve visited — the first being at the cramped and dated War Memorial on Van Ness, where the collections were more heavily weighted towards interactive and video arts. Some of these installations have returned on the 7th floor of the new building.

Despite my inability to relate to much of the new Fisher Collection on the 5th and 6th floors, overall the new museum is quite impressive — including the extensive outdoor space. Of the new things on exhibit there, I was perhaps most drawn in by Wayne Thiebaud’s Canyon Mountains, excerpts from Jim Goldberg’s poignant Rich and Poor photography/essay series, and the gravity-bending Sequence from Outer Sunset mega-sculptor Richard Serra. Nina Katchadourian’s Under Pressure was also rather comical, but you need to put on the headphones.

Café seating among art installations at the SFMOMA Sightglass Café seating and video installations at the SFMOMA Sightglass

A line forms away from the Sightglass service counter to allow pedestrians to pass through, and behind the counter there are dueling two-group Kees van der Westen Spirit machines and bags and bags of Sightglass coffee. For retail sale they also sell their roasted coffee, over-packaged and in a reduced-size (8-oz).

Other than some pastries, it’s largely about the coffee service here. They pull shots with a complex medium-brown mottled crema of lighter thickness. It has the flavor of mild spices, some acidic brightness of lemon peel, wood, and some limited cherry fruit but yet it’s not the stereotypical Sightglass brightness bomb you’d expect. Served two-sips short in logo porcelain cups with a glass of sparkling water on the side.

About as serious an espresso shot as you will find in an American art museum.

Read the review of Sightglass at SFMOMA.

Café seating outside the service area of SFMOMA's Sightglass The SFMOMA Sightglass espresso

Trip Report: Octane Coffee / Bar (Buckhead, Atlanta, GA)

Posted by on 19 Jun 2016 | Filed under: Café Society, Foreign Brew

In the greater Mylanta area, Octane frequently ranks as one of the preeminent quality coffee chains. As an example, in December 2014 Atlanta Magazine named it the city’s best coffee chain.

This location of the seven-store, three-state chain — in Atlanta’s trendy Buckhead district — seems wedged in a building that looks like what Georgians think is the norm for Silicon Valley. Imagine if a bunch of ex-Yahoo! employees on H1-B visas decided to open a Georgia-themed biscuits and gravy shop in Sunnyvale. Yeah, it’s kind of like that.

Entrance to Octane Coffee / Bar in the Atlanta Tech Village Razor scooter parking at the entrance of the Atlanta Tech Village

Coffee menu at Octane Coffee / Bar Octane Coffee's cold brew

Buckhead’s Atlanta Tech Village, or ATV, comes complete with airy glass-and-steel construction and designated Razor scooter parking in front (no, seriously, I am not making this up): surely 33% more startupy than the leading brand. Octane’s role here is to fit the tech worker coffee stereotype: chug coffee, write code.

Outdoors there’s patio seating in front under parasols — which don’t offer much help when Atlanta is hot enough to melt your face. (It was 100°F out, and “feels like 105°F” per my weather app, on my visit.) Inside the space curves around the outside contour of the building, with a service counter (and a King of Pops popsicle case) in front and several tables and a long, shared wooden bench towards the back. Along the glass windows there is a series of white modern stools.

They offer Japanese cold drip, a nitro-brewed iced coffee (which is rather tepid, btw), three pour-over coffee options, and espresso. Their standard blend is the Gravy Espresso.

Entering Octane Coffee / Bar in Buckhead Roasted coffee for sale at Octane Coffee / Bar

Inside the curved seating at Octane Coffee /  Bar Octane Coffee / Bar's La Marzocco Linea

Using a two-group La Marzocco Linea, they pull shots with a healthy, evenly shaded medium brown crema. It has a good mouthfeel and density and exhibits excellent flavor balance in the cup: an even blend of mild spices, some wood, and some fruit. A friend who lives in the neighborhood told me that it can run a bit green-plant bitter, but I quite liked it and thought it showed great balance and restraint while still having a thick consistency.

If there’s any complaint, it’s that it’s too smooth and lacking strongly distinctive characteristics — making this more of a multiple-times-per-day Italian style espresso. Served with sparkling water on the side in Cuisinox cups by a cringe-worthy barista who calls it “spro”.

For their cappuccino they employ detailed Rosetta latte art with restricted, overly gentle milk-foam: it’s more liquid milk blended in the body and is thus too runny or liquidy. My friend also complained about the cortado here running a bit lukewarm on the serving temperature, which could be explained by their generous use of tepid milk. But despite the sterile office park location, it’s one of the better espresso bars in town.

Read the review of Octane Coffee / Bar in Atlanta’s Buckhead District.

The Octane Coffee / Bar espresso The Octane Coffee / Bar cappuccino

Trip Report: illy Caffè (Sansome St., Financial District)

Posted by on 18 Jun 2016 | Filed under: Café Society, Local Brew

I hadn’t seen the illy caffè North America crew since attending Università del Caffè at CIA Greystone. I’ve long admired them as a privately-owned company: run by cool people, with an attention to coffee quality and investments in coffee science long before anybody thought that made any sense, and even being named a world’s most ethical company for four years running now. So when they invited me to another San Francisco illy caffè opening last month, of course I accepted.

This is another illy Caffè in SF (and not another Espressamente) — this one located in the eastern shadow of the Transamerica Pyramid, in the heart of the Financial District. Like the other illy caffè on Union St. that predated it, the food menu is a bit more involved and the service levels are just a touch higher than you’d get at an Espressamente.

Entrance to illy Caffè on Sansome St. in SF's Financial Distrcit The illy chandelier at 505 Sansome

Tricked out illy mobile cart and too many models in black at the illy opening Pastry counter at illy's 505 Sansome location

It’s a 1352 square-foot space capable of seating 32 patrons, and there’s the requisite illy Art Collection chandelier made of their designer cups as you walk in. Tall windows overlook the modern SF firehouse across the street with various café tables spread about for lingering.

Behind a large pastry counter (from City Bakery and Tout Sweet Patisserie) they operate a two-group La Marzocco Strada machine. With it they’ve pulled shots with a picture-perfect, medium brown tiger-striped crema of modest thickness. The flavor profile is classic illy: mild spices, wood, and a broader flavor profile. Served in designer IPA logo cups.

Inside, the illy caffè NA crew showcase the company and menu Master Barista, Giorgio Milos, looks on at the event

illy caffè NA's Mark Romano explains their coffee sourcing illy's affogato specialty drink

Milk-frothing here is good: it may not be the prettiest, but it has a good texture and density. As illy has gotten into signature drinks lately, upon visit they were featuring their summer-ready illy Espressoda and a dessert-worthy illy Cinnamon Vanilla Affogato. For those bored with good coffee.

Read the review of illy caffè on Sansome St. in San Francisco’s Financial District.

illy Caffè's La Marzocco Strada The illy Caffè espresso

Cappuccino served at illy Caffè's 505 Sansome location

Trip Report: Cafe Virtuoso (San Diego, CA)

Posted by on 11 Jun 2016 | Filed under: Foreign Brew, Roasting

This coffee shop opened in early 2009 in San Diego’s transitional Barrio Logan. This neglected industrial and shipbuilding neighborhood, located in the shadow of the San Diego-Coronado Bridge, is home to a few thousand mostly Latino residents. But that mix, and the mix of local businesses, is gradually changing with the winds of gentrification: alongside Latino murals, welding and machine shops, recycling centers, car repair joints, and grittier homes now stand microbreweries, cross-fit gyms, and hipster coffee shops.

Unlike San Francisco, where many see the arrival of an upscale coffee shop as the death of culture as we know it, in Barrio Logan most of the neighborhood friction concerns its mixed-use zoning where toxic chemicals, residents, and art studios struggle to co-exist side-by-side. A coffee shop/roaster such as Cafe Virtuoso is still industrial enough to blend in with its neighbors.

Entrance and sidewalk seating at San Diego's Cafe Virtuoso Seating just inside Cafe Virtuoso's entrance

Over the years, as San Diego laggardly opted to get serious about coffee, Cafe Virtuoso has slowly earned something of a loyal following among locals in-the-know.

There’s outdoor sidewalk seating in front with three metal tables and a parasol. Just inside the front door there’s a small room with three tables and artwork made of burlap coffee sacks on the walls. Past that is the main bay: a large industrial space with slab concrete floors that hosts coffee serving, roasting, and retail space.

In the main bay there are three additional metal tables with steel stools for seating. A baker’s rack of roasted coffee, brewing equipment, and tea dominates a section parallel to the service counter. A yellow Diedrich roaster draws attention at the center of the space (they’re San Diego’s only 100% certified organic roaster). Parked in back, when not out on the road at events, is a UNIC mobile cart.

Cafe Virtuoso's wall o' mersh Cafe Virtuoso's wall o' mersh, part 2

Cafe Virtuoso's Diedrich roaster and mobile UNIC cart at the back Roasted and packaged Cafe Virtuoso coffee

The comparatively small service area features a menu split between regular and premium espresso shot options, served from a two-group La Marzocco Strada, in addition to pour-over coffee and (nitro) cold brew.

Using their House Espresso, they pulled a shot with an event medium brown crema that ran slightly thin on thickness. It was light-bodied, fruity, and expressed some mild spice in addition to some roasted almond bitterness — a touch of which might be due to slight overextraction. It’s a solid shot, even though it shows some technical softness around the edges that could be tightened up with stricter standards and attention to detail. Served in a white notNeutral demitasse with sparkling water on the side.

Read the review of Cafe Virtuoso in San Diego, CA.

Another random space of tea and other mersh at Cafe Virtuoso Drink menu at Cafe Virtuoso

Cafe Virtuoso's La Marzocco Strada The Cafe Virtuoso espresso, with sparkling water on the side

Coffee Studies: John Oliver Skewers the Medical Infotainment Industry

Posted by on 09 May 2016 | Filed under: Café Society, Coffee Health, Consumer Trends

This is gonna sound cliché, but while I’ve been a longtime fan of Jon Stewart, I never quite warmed up to John Oliver.

Oh sure… on his new show Last Week Tonight with John Oliver, now in its third season, Mr. Oliver can amp up the incredulity and indignation, throw in contrived comedic riffs, and preach to the choir of his liberal-minded audience as Mr. Stewart did for years on The Daily Show. But Mr. Stewart was always so much more adept at it.

Even if Mr. Oliver is trying a bit too hard to follow in Mr. Stewart’s Daily Show footsteps, there are times — like his rant on FIFA — where he can nail a topic with obliterating precision. This week’s episode on scientific research in the media did exactly that, where coffee-related medical research is one of the more popular topics among cited studies.

Readers of this ancient blog may recall many past rants of mine on many of the identical issues raised in this short — from a 2006 story about caffeine studies on rat libido to my 2008 calling out of the media-medical-research complex to a 2014 lament on the scientific shallowness of TED talks.

As Mr. Oliver says in the video:

Coffee today is like God in the Old Testament: it will either save you or kill you depending upon how much you believe in its magic powers.

Reading news headlines on my Flipboard these days has been an exercise in dismay for the future fate of the species. “Science” is regularly quoted in headlines as if it were an individual person, spouting off the most inane opinions on the most vapid subjects. But these opinions are treated as fact — as if chiseled in stone and handed out from high atop the mountain.

Yet study after cited study is inevitably flawed, distorted, and/or spun as click-bait. And no matter what, each and every study is almost certainly unverified — each a quotable example of what has been brewing as science’s massive replication crisis that’s been quietly underway for the past decade. The lone hope is that the scientific process can still call out these replication gaps. But as Mr. Oliver points out:

There is no reward for being the second person to discover something in science. There’s no Nobel Prize for fact-checking.

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